Section 301 Update — Increase in US Duties (and Increased Pressure on China)

Earlier today, in between tweets about yesterday’s Kentucky Derby result and the Mueller report, President Trump announced that (i) the 10% duty on articles included on List 3 would increase from 10% to 25% this coming Friday (May 10, 2019), and (ii) a 25% duty would be imposed on the remaining $325 billion worth of imports from China “shortly”. 

 This announcement is a bombshell, particularly given recent stories about all of the progress being made in the negotiations between the United States and China.  Secretary Mnuchin and USTR Lighthizer were in China last week, and Vice Premier Liu was expected to come to Washington, DC this week, to continue (and potentially complete) those negotiations.  We believe that today’s announcement should be viewed in that context – i.e., the negotiations may be down to the final stages and President Trump is using the leverage he has to cinch the deal.  In particular, people should watch to see if Vice Premier Liu still comes to Washington, DC this week for talks, or whether he stays home in response to today’s tweets.  If he does come to town, then there is a greater likelihood that a deal is reached (and the proposed increase in duties may mooted or delayed); whereas, if he stays home, then the proposed increase in duties take effect.

 Unfortunately, President Trump believes that the Section 301 duties are “mostly borne by China” and “have had little impact on product cost”.  As a result, all companies that import articles from China (whether currently subject to the Section 301 duties or not) should be watching the news this week for further developments.  Interesting times.

 If you have any questions, please let us know.


Section 301 — Notice Delaying Duty Increase on List 3 from 10% to 25%

Dear Friends,

Further to the below, included here is an advance copy of a notice that will be published in the Federal Register next week officially delaying the increase in Section 301 duties on articles included on List 3 from 10% to 25%.  Based on the agreement reached by President Trump and President Xi last month (see previous post), the duty rate will now increase on such articles on March 2, 2019 (rather than on January 1, 2019) unless an overall agreement is reached, or there is a further delay.

Best regards,



CBP’s Section 301 Enforcement Push

Dear Friends,

As companies consider mitigation strategies to offset the impact of the Section 301 duties, we wanted to share an important update regarding enforcement priorities at the border.  Further to recent reports, CBP’s Office of Regulatory Audit has confirmed that it will be ramping up enforcement of “various types” of imported electronics (i.e., products classified in chapters 84 and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States).  In connection with these efforts, Regulatory Audit is adding staff, including managers and auditors.  For instance, CBP is adding 60 new auditors across Regulatory Audit’s 10 field offices.  Our contacts in Regulatory Audit have informed us that, as part of this effort, a first “wave” of CF-28s (Requests for Information) since the imposition of the Section 301 duties will be issued in 2-4 weeks.  

There are several reasons for CBP to focus its enforcement on imported electronics.  Most importantly, billions of dollars in revenue are at stake for the U.S. government, and CBP is intent on collecting that revenue (the Trump administration expects CBP to collect “record-setting revenues”).  Also, given that electronics have generally been entitled to be entered duty free (or subject to very low duty rates), CBP recognizes that importers are under pressure to reduce the Section 301 impact and, therefore, may (intentionally or unintentionally) act in a manner contrary to U.S. customs laws and regulations.  Last, targeting electronics is justifiable given the conclusions of the Section 301 investigation, namely that the Government of China engages in intellectual property theft and forced technology transfers to support its industrial advancement goals.  Stated differently, targeting electronics aligns with the legal basis for the Section 301 duties and the administration’s messaging around China’s unfair policies. 

While CBP has confirmed that an enforcement push will be made with respect to electronics, we understand that CBP is increasing enforcement activities on all fronts.  As such, companies pursuing Section 301 mitigation strategies should tread cautiously.  Re-classifying products, changing the country of origin, and/or decreasing the customs valuation (for example, by declaring the “first sale” price in a multi-tiered transaction, rather than the price the U.S. importer pays), is likely to draw scrutiny from CBP.  As such, it is important that companies be able to demonstrate that they exercised reasonable care in carrying out these activities (not exercising reasonable care can lead to steep penalties, in addition to owing unpaid duties).  To demonstrate that a company is exercising reasonable care, we recommend having on file contemporaneously drafted documentation that substantiates the legal basis for any changes (e.g., documentation explaining that, based on changes to the supply chain, the product is no longer Chinese origin, since it is now last substantially transformed origin somewhere else).  Further, any company that receives a CF-28 or CF-29 (Notice of Action) should escalate the matter to the company’s legal department before responding and/or engage outside trade counsel, if appropriate. 

We hope this is helpful.  If you have any questions regarding the above, please let us know.    

Best regards,


Section 301 – Upping the Ante

Dear Friends,

The in-person meeting between President Trump and President Xi of China scheduled for the side-lines of the G20 Summit in Buenos Aires on November 20, 2018 is taking on heightened significance. 

In a television interview yesterday, President Trump said that he has tariffs on the remaining $267 billion worth of Chinese imports into the United States “ready to go” if the two sides cannot reach a deal.  He also said that, while he is confident that a deal could be made, he believes that “China is not ready”. 

While anything can happen, it is wise to take such political rhetoric seriously (but not literally).  Accordingly, all companies should prepare for the United States initiating the process for List 4 shortly after the November 20th meeting.  Based on the timeline followed in the previous rounds, the List 4 additional duties could go into effect by late January/early February 2019.

We hope this is helpful.  If you have any questions, or if you would like to discuss these issues further, please let us know.

Best regards,

Is Increased/Intensified FTC Enforcement of “Made in USA” Claims on the Horizon?

Dear Friends,

There have been some recent developments with regard to the Federal Trade Commission’s enforcement of the “Made in USA” guidelines that we wanted to bring to your attention.

A theme of “America First” trade enforcement activity under the current administration is protecting/promoting U.S. manufacturing.  This is evident in the Section 301 tariffs on Chinese-made goods, the Section 232 tariffs on steel and aluminum, the renegotiation of NAFTA and the pending Section 232 investigation contemplating duties on autos and auto parts.  It is now also visible in significant changes to “Made in USA” enforcement at the FTC.

Since taking office, President Trump has appointed a full contingent of new FTC Commissioners (5 of 5).  This is uncommonly quick (Commissioners are appointed for limited terms; Presidents Bush, Obama and Clinton each only appointed all five FTC commissioners once they reached their second terms in office.)  The effect of the new appointees is already being seen.

As you may know, the FTC enforces a stringent definition of what qualifies as “Made in USA” for labeling and advertising purposes. Only products manufactured or assembled in the United States with “all or virtually all” U.S.-origin content (generally viewed as 95%+ U.S. content) meet this standard.  While the FTC has engaged in regular enforcement actions over the last 20 years, it has rarely sought to impose penalties greater than a public censure in the form of a consent order.  Most consent orders do not even involve an admission of guilt by the named party (just an agreement to change the offending behavior going forward).

A trio of recent cases suggest that this may be about to change.  In each case, the facts were clear cut—companies plainly (even enthusiastically) advertising Chinese-made products as “Made in USA” (for example, in one case, Chinese-made hockey pucks were labeled as “Proudly Made in the USA,” “MADE IN AMERICA,” “100% Made in the USA!,” “100% American Made!”, and sold as “The Only American Made Hockey Puck!”).  What was noteworthy about these cases, was that three Commissioners issued (or joined in) separate opinions addressing the settlements.

Commissioner Slaughter (D) and Chairman Simons (R) took the unusual step of issuing a concurring statement, supporting the cases’ resolution by consent decree, but emphasizing that the FTC should make “strategic use of additional remedies” such as “monetary relief or notice to consumers” to enhance effectiveness going forward, and noting that the FTC has begun a “broad review of whether we are using every available remedy as effectively as possible” to pursue “vigorous enforcement.”

Commissioner Chopra (D), on the other hand, was the lone vote against the three consent settlements.  He argued, quite simply, that “no-money, no-fault settlements” are an insufficient remedy for extreme cases of consumer fraud.  In cases like these, he argued, the FTC should insist that companies admit to fraud before accepting a settlement.  Doing so could make it easier for such companies to be exposed to lawsuits by competitors under the Lanham Act.

Although the current FTC commissioners were all appointed by President Trump, these enforcement developments do not seem to be partisan (or may actually be bipartisan. . .).  Earlier this week, three Democratic Senators (Sens. Brown, Baldwin and Murphy) wrote to the FTC that “no-fault no-money” settlements of “Made in USA” cases are indicative of “lackluster enforcement”, and urged that the FTC begin assessing fines and making wrongdoing companies “admit they lied to the public” when the FTC determines that has been a violation of the guidelines.

As a result, all companies that label, advertising or otherwise market goods in the United States as “Made in USA” (or with any other type of U.S.-origin claim) should be mindful of these developments and appreciate that such claims are likely to face greater scrutiny going forward.  In addition, to the extent you are aware of competitors who may be violating these rules to gain an unfair competitive edge, the FTC appears more receptive than ever to complaints.

We have advised many businesses on these issues in the past, and would be happy to answer any questions you may have.

We hope this his helpful.

Best regards,

Important US Customs Ruling on Determining Country of Origin for Section 301 Purposes

Dear Friends,

U.S. Customs and Border Protection recently published a ruling that every company considering shifting production from China to Mexico (or Canada) as part of a strategy to mitigate the impact of the Section 301 duties should be aware of.  In Headquarters Ruling H300226, CBP concluded that, while the NAFTA Marking Rules (19 C.F.R. Part 102) are used to determine the country of origin of articles imported into the United States from Mexico for marking purposes, the traditional substantial transformation test is used to determine the country of origin of articles for Section 301 duty purposes.  A copy of the ruling is attached here for your reference: H300226.

As you will see from the ruling, parts of a motor were imported into Mexico for assembly.  The assembly operation in Mexico was sufficient to satisfy the applicable NAFTA Marking Rule, such that the finished article was considered to a “product of Mexico” for marking purposes.  CBP, however, then went on to say that the traditional substantial transformation test is used for purposes of “antidumping, countervailing, or other safeguard measures[.]”  CBP then applied the traditional substantial transformation test to the facts and concluded that the Mexican assembly operations were not sufficient to confer origin and, therefore, the finished motor imported into the United States was a “product of China” for Section 301 purposes.  So, in short, the product had to be marked to indicate that it was of Mexican origin, but the importer had to pay the Section 301 duty applicable to Chinese-origin articles.

This ruling highlights a few important points.  First, while the traditional substantial transformation test and the NAFTA Marking Rules are meant to embody the same origin principles, they do not always produce the same result due to the different nature of the tests (i.e., the traditional substantial transformation test is subjective; whereas the NAFTA Marking Rules are objective).  Second, for purposes of section 301, the traditional substantial transformation test must be used even if the goods are imported from an FTA-partner country (e.g., Mexico, Canada, Singapore, etc.).  The NAFTA Marking Rules may be helpful to that analysis, but are not determinative.  Finally, CBP is willing to live with this seemingly absurd result (i.e., an article marked “Product of Mexico” being subject to duties applicable to “products of China”).

I hope that this helps.  If you have any questions about these issues, please let us know.

Best regards,

Section 301 – China Responds

Dear Friends,

As expected, China announced yesterday that it will implement retaliatory tariffs of either 10% or 5% on $60 billion worth of U.S. products imported into China beginning September 24, 2018.  China’s action is in response to the U.S. announcement of its intention to implement the Section 301 List 3 tariffs.

The latest round of Chinese retaliatory tariffs will apply to products of U.S. origin that fall on four lists that China published on August 3, 2018.  China organized these four lists according to proposed tariff rates of 25%, 20%, 10% and 5%.  Based on its latest announcement, while the products have not changed, the tariff rates have.  China will impose a 10% retaliatory tariff on U.S. products on the 25% and 20% lists, and it will impose a 5% tariff on products on the latter two lists.  Links to these four lists are provided for your reference below.  While the lists are in Chinese, the products can be identified by their tariff numbers. 

U.S. Products to be Subject to 10% Tariff:

U.S. Products to be Subject to 5% Tariff:

Unlike the United States, China does not offer a formal process for importers to request product exclusions from the tariffs, and affected companies must explore other options to mitigate the impact of the Chinese retaliatory tariffs on their businesses, such as advocacy, changes to their sourcing and manufacturing strategies, and other duty planning methods.

Our trade team in China routinely assists companies evaluate their options and implement mitigation strategies to address the tariffs.  If you have questions, or if you would like to explore possible options, you can either contact us or reach out to Jon Cowley ( or Frank Pan ( directly.  

We hope this update is helpful.

Best regards,